Reinforcement learning psychology

presentation to the seminar for teachers on conflict prevention at school.

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Conflict – the collision of oppositely directed goals, interests, positions, opinions and views of people. Conflict – the struggle for values ​​and claims for a certain status, power, resources, in which the objectives are to neutralize, damage or destroy an opponent.

A conflict situation is the conflicting positions of the parties on any occasion, the pursuit of opposing goals, the use of various means to achieve them, the discrepancy between interests, desires and

In terms of the scope of conflict, there are: Intra-personal – two or more components of the same personality (separate traits, personality traits and behavior) are parties to the conflict. Interpersonal – parties to a conflict are two or more individuals entering into confrontation about motives, goals, and values.

In terms of scope, there are conflicts: The conflict between an individual and a group is a contradiction between the expectations and requirements of an individual and the norms of behavior and labor that have been established in the group. Intergroup – conflicts within the formal groups of the team, informal groups and

For the duration of the course: Short-term – are the result of mutual misunderstanding or mistakes that are quickly realized. Protracted – associated with deep moral and psychological trauma or with objective difficulties.

Conflicts may arise due to contradictions: a) when innovating, when innovation and conservatism collide; B) group interests, when people defend the interests of only their own group while ignoring the common ones; C) associated with personal, selfish motives, when self-interest encourages all other motives.

Depending on the resolution method, the following is distinguished: Destructive conflict – opposition of opinions or positions, which results in aggravation of interaction and destruction of relationships. Constructive conflict – the confrontation of the parties, as a result of which there is a change, the development of personality or team

Feature of pedagogical conflicts. The reasons for their occurrence “The conflict between the teacher and the child, between the teacher and the parents, the teacher and the staff is a big problem of the school. The ability to avoid conflict is one of the constituent parts of the teacher’s wisdom. Think of the child fairly – and there will be no conflicts. By warning the conflict, the teacher not only preserves, but also creates the educational force of the team. ”

All pedagogical conflicts can be divided into three groups: Motivational Associated with deficiencies in the organization of training Conflict of interactions

Motivational conflicts. They arise between teachers and students due to the learning motivation of students (due to the fact that schoolchildren either do not want to study, or study without interest, under duress)

Conflicts associated with deficiencies in the organization of training. I conflict period occurs in primary school, when a first grader is going through a rather difficult stage in his life: a change of play activity to a learning one takes place. II conflict period – the transition to grade 5. Replaced by one teacher comes a few teachers, teachers. There are new academic subjects. III conflict period – at the beginning of the 9th grade, when you need to decide what to do after graduation – go to the secondary school or to the 10th grade. IV conflict period – graduation from school, choice of future profession, EGE, the beginning of personal life.

Conflict of interactions Conflict of students among themselves, teachers among themselves, teachers and students, teachers and administration, teachers and parents. They occur mainly due to the personal characteristics of the conflicting: a) leadership conflicts are most common among students; b) in addition to motivational, “teacher-student” conflicts can also have a moral and aesthetic character; c) “teacher-teacher” conflicts may arise for various reasons: of a personal nature, between primary school teachers and subject teachers, etc .; d) conflicts “teacher-administration” are connected with the problems of power and subordination, innovations.

The peculiarities of pedagogical conflicts are: The teacher’s professional responsibility for the correct decision of a way out of a conflict situation, since the educational institution in which a child studies is a model of a society where students learn social norms and relations between people. The presence of other students in a conflict makes them witnesses to the participants, and the conflict acquires an educational meaning for them; this always has to be remembered by the teacher. Participants in conflicts have different social status (teacher, student), which determines their different behavior in the conflict. The difference in the age and life experience of the participants gives rise to varying degrees of responsibility for errors in their resolution.

Peculiarities of pedagogical conflicts Different understanding of events and their causes by participants (the conflict “through the eyes of the teacher” and “the eyes of the student” is seen differently), so the teacher is not always easy to understand the depth of the student’s experiences, and the student to cope with their emotions. The professional position of the teacher in the conflict obliges to take the initiative in his resolution and to be able to put the interests of the student as an emerging personality first. Any teacher’s mistake in resolving a conflict creates new situations and conflicts in which other participants are included – students, teachers, administration, parents.

Structure, sphere, dynamics of the “student-teacher” pedagogical conflict. The structure of a conflict situation consists of the internal and external positions of the participants, of the interactions of the objects of the conflict. The internal position of the participants consists of their goals, interests and motives; it is, as it were, behind the scenes and often does not pronounce it during the interaction. External position is manifested in the speech of the conflicting, reflected in their opinions, points of view, wishes. The difference between the internal and external positions of the people involved in the conflict is necessary for us to try to see behind the external, situational – internal, essential.

The object of the conflict is difficult to determine. For the teacher, the object is classroom discipline; for the student, the desire for self-assertion. Conflict settlement can begin with the unification of objects: the teacher assigns, for example, an interesting thing, during which the conditions arise for the adolescent to satisfy his need for self-affirmation.

The scope of the conflict can be business or personal. Teachers and students who interact with each other often encounter situations of conflict. However, one should strive to ensure that the conflict occurs in the business sphere and does not offend the personal one.

The dynamics of the conflict If the conflict is still "inflamed", then suppress it is not so simple. But when the conflicting parties exhaust their energies, erupt emotions, and the attenuation stage begins, an educational correction is possible and effective here. Conflicts have feelings of guilt, regret and even remorse. At this stage, you can conduct educational conversations, identify and eliminate the causes of conflicts. consists of three main stages: growth, implementation, attenuation. You can block the development of a conflict at the stage of its occurrence. One of the effective ways to block a conflict is to transfer it from the plane of communicative relationships to the plane of subject-activity. For example, at the moment when you notice an increase in tension between two students, give them both some kind of assignment, especially if it is related to the performance of physical labor.

CONFLICT RESOLUTION: To extinguish a conflict – THIS IS MEANS TO TRANSFER THE RELATIONS OF ITS PARTICIPERS Meaningfulness and depth situation analysis, interest in the issue and educational psychology, interest in the child, desire to see the situation through the eyes of pupils and help him get out of it, the ability to construct their own rational arguments about the arisen situation – these are the main components of pedagogical competent analysis.

Styles of conflict resolution. Competition or rivalry style. Cooperation style. Dodge style, avoidance. Adaptation style. Compromise style.

The style of competition or rivalry The essence of style Characteristic situations The desire to achieve his own to the detriment of the interests of another open struggle for their interests. In this case, the parties to the conflict are angry, aggressive. A teacher with a strong will, sufficient authority, authority, not very interested in cooperation, and seeking to satisfy his own interests in the first place can be used by the outcome of the conflict is very important for you, and you make a big bet on your solution to the problem; have sufficient authority and authority, it is presented that it is obvious that the proposed solution is the best; feel that you have no other choice and you have nothing to lose; must make an unpopular decision, and you have enough authority to do this.

Style of cooperation. The essence of style. It is aimed at finding a solution that fully satisfies the interests of the parties. In addition, each of the conflicting parties assumes an equal share of responsibility for resolving the conflict. You can use it if, in defending your own interests, you have to take into account the needs and desires of the other party. This style is the most difficult, because it requires a longer work. The purpose of its application is the development of a long-term mutually beneficial solution. This style requires the ability to explain their desires, listen to each other, restrain emotions. Characteristic situations It is necessary to find a common solution if each of the approaches to the problem is important and does not allow compromise solutions; you have a long-lasting, strong and interdependent relationship with the other party; the main goal is to gain joint work experience; the parties are able to listen to each other and state the essence of their interests.

Compromise style The essence of the style The parties seek to resolve differences in mutual concessions. Most effective if both parties want the same thing, but they know that at the same time it is impracticable. The emphasis is not on a decision that satisfies the interests of both parties, but on the option – “we cannot fulfill our desires, which means we need to come to a decision that each of us could agree to”. Characteristic situations Both sides have equally convincing arguments; the satisfaction of your desire does not matter much to you; You can arrange a temporary solution, because there is no time to work out another, or other approaches to solving the problem have been ineffective

Style of avoidance, avoidance. The essence of the style. Is in the desire to get out of a conflict situation, not solving it, not yielding to her, but not insisting on her (anger, depression). It is usually implemented when the problem concerned is not so important for you, you do not assert your rights, do not cooperate with anyone to come up with a solution and don’t want to waste time and energy on solving it. Characteristic situations • The source of disagreement is irrelevant to you in comparison with other more important tasks; it is not worth wasting energy; • know that you cannot or do not want to resolve the issue in your favor; • want to gain time to examine the situation and obtain additional information before making a decision; • to try to solve the problem immediately is dangerous, since an open discussion of the conflict may worsen the situation; • you had a difficult day, and solving this problem may bring additional troubles

Style of adaptation The essence of style. You act together with the other party, but at the same time do not try to defend your own interests in order to smooth out and restore a normal working atmosphere. Style is most effective when the outcome of the case is extremely important for the other side and not very important for you or when you sacrifice your own interests in favor of the other side. Characteristic situations • The most important task is to restore calm and stability, and not to resolve the conflict; • the subject matter is not important to you, or you are not particularly worried about what happened; consider it better to maintain good relations with other people than to defend one’s own position; realize that the truth is not on your side; feel that you have not enough power or chance to win.

Conclusions: 1) Conflict should not be afraid. It is a kind of indicator of where the priority efforts should be directed. 2) Of course, the resolution of conflict through cooperation is preferential. But sometimes it is necessary to first apply other methods (avoiding conflict, compromise, etc.) according to the situation. 3) When analyzing a conflict situation, it is important to consider all the factors contributing to its occurrence.

Conclusions (cont’d) No matter what ways conflict situations are resolved, no matter how noble goals the participants are guided by, they should never contradict the norms of pedagogical ethics and the requirements of public morality. The conflict is the same powder. It will break out either from the word, or from a single action. Therefore, the best way to prevent or resolve any conflict is to ensure a high culture of communication.

There is a special technology of communication, the techniques of which are convincingly demonstrated by the American scientist – psychologist D. Carnegie. 1. SMILE! A smile enriches those who receive it, and does not impoverish those who give it! 2. Remember that for a person the sound of his name is the most important sound in human speech. As often as possible, contact another person by name. 3. Sincerely acknowledge the good in others. 4. Be cordial in your approval and be generous in praise, and people will cherish your words, remember them throughout their lives. 5. The desire to understand another person creates cooperation.

Conflicts in the interaction of parents and children. Even in well-off families in more than 30% of cases there are conflicts between adolescents and parents.

Psychological factors of conflict in the interaction of parents and children. Type of intrafamily relations. – Harmonious – Disharmonious Destructiveness of family education. – Disagreements on parenting issues; – Inconsistency, inconsistency, inadequacy; – custody and prohibitions. Age crises of children. – 1 year, 3 years, 6-7 years, 12-14 years old, 15-17 years old. Personality factor. – Personal characteristics of parents – Personal characteristics of children

Types of parent-child relationships: the optimal type of parent-child relationship; need not be called a need, but parents delve into the interests of children, and children share their thoughts with them; parents rather delve into the care of children than children share with them (mutual discontent arises); children are more likely to want to share with their parents than they delve into the care, interests and activities of children; behavior, life aspirations of children cause conflicts in the family, and at the same time parents are more likely to be right; behavior, life aspirations of children cause conflicts in the family, and children are more likely right; parents do not delve into the interests of children, and children do not feel the desire to share with them (the contradictions were not noticed by their parents and turned into conflicts and mutual alienation).

Conflicts of adolescents with parents Conflict of volatility of parental relations; Over-care conflict; Conflict of disrespect for the rights to independence; The conflict of paternal authority.

Reinforcement learning psychology

Reactions of the child to the claims and conflicting actions of the parents; The reaction of the opposition; Failure response; Insulation Reaction

Areas of preventing conflicts between parents and children; Improving the pedagogical culture of parents Family organization on a collective basis; The reinforcement of verbal requirements by the circumstances of the educational process; Interest in the inner world of children, their cares and hobbies.

The behavior of parents in a conflict will be constructive if: Always remembering the child’s individuality; Consider that each new situation requires a new solution; Try to understand the requirements of the child; Remember that change takes time; Contradictions perceive as factors of normal development \ i; Be consistent with the child; Often offer a choice of several alternatives; Approve options for constructive behavior; Together to seek a way out by changing the situation; Reduce the number "can not" and increase the number of "possible"; Restrictedly apply punishment, while respecting justice and necessity; To make it possible to feel the inevitability of negative actions; More encouraged morally, not materially; Use a positive example of other children and parents.

Thanks for attention.

By topic: methodical developments, presentations and notes

A large number of conflicts in school, especially among fifth graders during the adaptation period, moved to look for effective ways to solve this problem. As one of the forms of work in this direction.

Introduction. About the school, which is the crossroads of three groups of people, namely teachers, students and their parents, containing an increased risk of conflict. About a very multifaceted causation x.

The teacher works with all participants of the educational process and he needs to be literate in solving conflict situations.

It will be of interest to schools where the SSP reconciliation service is just beginning to operate, as an introductory material. The presentation can be shown at parent meetings, teacher councils. To help to.

This presentation is offered as an illustrative material for a school-wide parent meeting.

Reinforcement learning psychology

“Conflicts in the family and school. Ways of overcoming conflicts ”(from work experience).

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