Agreed by the Department for the supervision of the boiler supervision of the lifting facilities of the Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia (
Agreed by Gosenergonadzor of the Ministry of Energy of Russia (
“Standard instructions for the technical operation of heating networks of municipal heat supply systems” compiled to develop the requirements of the Rules for the Technical Operation of Power Plants and Networks of the Russian Federation, approved by the Ministry of Fuel and Energy of Russia
The standard instruction is a revised edition of the Rules for the Technical Operation of the Communal Heating Networks and Thermal Units, approved by the order of the RSFSR Minzhilkomkhoz
The standard instruction has been supplemented with regard to the newly issued and revised regulatory and technical documents (PDD), as well as operating experience of the municipal district heating systems.
The standard instruction establishes the requirements for the technical operation of heating networks and structures on them, the implementation of which is necessary to ensure reliable and economical operation of the systems of municipal heat supply, uninterrupted supply of heat energy and heat carriers.
A number of provisions relating to the design, construction, installation, commissioning, repair of heating networks, pumping stations and heat points in the Model Guidelines are summarized as they are discussed in other regulatory and technical documents.
On the basis of the Model Instruction in organizations operating heat networks, local instructions for the operation of heat networks should be drawn up taking into account technical features and specific conditions without reducing the requirements established by this Model Instruction.
The standard instruction was developed by the Russian Joint-Stock Company of the closed type “Roskommunenergo” and the Russian Association “Municipal Energy”, agreed by the Department for boiler inspection and supervision of the lifting facilities of the Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia (letter
1. GENERAL PROVISIONS
On the basis of the Model Manual, organizations operating heat networks should draw up local instructions for the operation of heat networks taking into account technical features and specific conditions without reducing the requirements established by these Instructions.
Requirements Instructions should be taken into account when performing design, installation, repair, commissioning work, as well as technical diagnostics of utility heating networks, pumping stations, central heating units.
hot water with a working pressure of up to 2.5 MPa and a temperature of up to 200 ° C;
steam with a working pressure of up to 6.3 MPa and a temperature of up to 440 ° C.
The organization operating the heating networks is obliged to ensure the unhindered admission of officials of the state supervision and control bodies, the provision of information and documents to them necessary for the exercise of their powers, and the implementation of issued instructions in a timely manner.
“Accident” – damage to the pipeline of the heating network, if during the heating season this led to a break in the heat supply of residential housing facilities for a period of 36 hours or more;
“Commissioning” – filling of the heat networks and subscriber heat consumption systems with a heat carrier and putting them under pressure, produced after proper registration of the facility’s admission to operation;
“The balance of the balance of ownership” – the line dividing the elements of heating systems on the basis of ownership or other legal grounds;
“Boundary of operational responsibility” is the line of division of the elements of the heat supply system on the basis of duties (responsibility) for the operation of certain elements of the heat supply systems, established by agreement of the parties; in the absence of such an agreement, the limit of operational liability is established at the border of the balance sheet;
“Customer” is a legal entity intending to connect its heat-consuming installations and (or) heating networks to the networks of a heat supplying organization;
“Closed heating system” – a water heating system in which water circulating in the heating network is used only as a coolant and is not drawn from the network;
“Incident” – failure or damage to equipment and (or) pipelines of heat networks, deviations from the hydraulic and (or) thermal conditions, violation of the requirements of federal laws and other legal acts of the Russian Federation, as well as regulatory technical documents establishing the rules for conducting work on hazardous production object;
“Thermal network chamber” – a construction on a thermal network for the placement and maintenance of equipment, instruments and fittings;
“Overhaul” – repair performed to restore the technical and economic characteristics of the object to values close to the design, with the replacement or restoration of any component parts;
“Maximum design load (power)” – the maximum hourly consumption of thermal energy and (or) the corresponding maximum hourly flow rate of the coolant;
“Pumping station” – a complex of facilities and devices designed to change the parameters of the coolant;
“Malfunction” – other disturbances in the operation of the heating system, for which at least one of the requirements specified by the technological process is not fulfilled;
“Open heating system” – a water heating system, in which the technological scheme provides for the analysis of the coolant (network water) for household, technological and other consumer needs;
“Connected heat load (power)” – the total design maximum heat load (power), or the total design maximum hourly flow rate of the heat carrier for all heat consumption systems connected to the heat networks of the heat supplying organization;
“Test pressure” is the excess pressure at which the hydraulic test of the pipeline or its shaped part (part) should be carried out for strength and density;
“Operating parameters of the transported medium” – the maximum temperature and the highest possible water pressure in the supply pipe, taking into account the operation of pumping stations and terrain;
“System of communal heat supply” – a set of heat sources and (or) heat networks of a city (district, quarter) united by a common production process, a populated area operated by a heat supply organization of a housing and utilities infrastructure that received the appropriate special permits (licenses) in the prescribed manner;
“Unauthorized connection of heat-consuming installations to heat supply systems” – connection made in violation of the established procedure for admission to operation;
“Maintenance” is a repair performed to maintain the technical and economic characteristics of an object within the specified limits, with replacement and (or) restoration of individual wear parts and parts;
“Heat network” – a set of devices designed to transmit and distribute heat energy to consumers;
“Thermal point” – a set of devices intended for connection to the heating networks of heating, ventilation, air conditioning, hot water supply and technological heat installations of industrial and agricultural enterprises, residential and public buildings (individual – to connect heat consumption systems of one building or its part; central – the same, two buildings or more);
“Maintenance” – a set of operations or an operation to maintain the health or serviceability of a product (installation) when it is used for its intended purpose, storage or transportation;
“Technological disruptions” disruptions in the operation of heating networks, which, depending on the nature and severity of the consequences (personnel exposure, deviations of energy carrier parameters, environmental impact, equipment damage volumes, other reliability factors) are divided into accidents and incidents, including
· “Technological failure” – the forced shutdown or limitation of equipment operability, damage to buildings and structures, which led to disruption of the process of transferring thermal energy to consumers if they do not contain signs of an accident;
· “Functional failure” – damage to buildings, structures, equipment (including backup and auxiliary) that did not affect the technological process of energy transfer, as well as improper operation of protection and automation, erroneous actions of personnel, if they did not lead to restriction of consumers and reduction the quality of heat supplied.
AVB – emergency and recovery team;
ADS – emergency dispatch service;
ACS – automated control system;
BAGV – hot water storage tank;
NTD – regulatory and technical documentation;
PTE – rules of technical operation;
PTB – safety regulations;
PPB – fire safety rules;
OETS – the organization operating thermal networks;
SI – measuring instruments;
CHP – central heat point;
ECP – electrochemical protection.
2. ORGANIZATION OF OPERATION
Duties of heat supplying organizations
the maintenance of heat networks, heat points and other structures in working, technically sound condition;
observance of heat supply modes in accordance with the quantity and quality of heat energy and heat carriers, maintaining at the border of operational responsibility the heat carrier parameters in accordance with the heat supply contract;
compliance with the requirements of the rules of industrial safety, labor protection and industrial sanitation, fire and environmental safety;
adherence to operational dispatch discipline;
ensuring maximum efficiency and reliability of the transfer and distribution of heat energy and coolants, the use of scientific and technological progress in order to improve the economy, reliability, safety, improve the ecological condition of power facilities.
sets the hydraulic and thermal conditions, including the pressure in the supply and return pipelines, the temperature of the supply water in the supply pipe, depending on the outdoor temperature; expected flow of network water through supply and return pipelines, hydraulic mode of pumping stations;
develops hydraulic and thermal regimes and measures related to the future development of the municipal heat supply system;
develops measures to exit from possible emergencies in the heating system;
develops regulatory indicators of the heat network for the specific consumption of network water, electricity and heat and heat carrier losses;
carries out work with personnel in accordance with the Rules of work with personnel in the organizations of the electric power industry of the Russian Federation , taking into account the features of working with the staff of energy organizations of the housing and utilities system of the Russian Federation .
Technical control over the organization of operation
external inspection and hydraulic testing of pipelines that are not subject to registration with the bodies of Gosgortekhnadzor – before commissioning after installation and repair related to welding, as well as when starting pipelines after finding them in a state of conservation for more than six months;
verification of technical documentation.
The scope of periodic technical examination of equipment, buildings and structures should include:
verification of technical documentation;
tests for compliance with the safety conditions of equipment, buildings and structures.
Technical certification of equipment, buildings and structures should be carried out at least 1 time in 5 years.
The results of the technical examination should be recorded in the technical passports of the relevant pipelines and equipment.
The Commission makes an assessment of the state, determines the measures necessary to ensure the normal operation of the equipment and the timing of their implementation.
Operation of heating networks and heating stations with defects detected during operational control and endangering the health and life of people, as well as violation of the technical examination deadlines and safety regulations is prohibited.
organize an investigation of violations in the operation of equipment, buildings and structures;
monitor the status and maintenance of technical documentation;
keep records of the performance of emergency and fire prevention measures;
to exercise control over the observance of the repair deadlines established by technical standards;
monitor and organize the investigation of the causes of failures and accidents, fires and other technological violations;
keep records of violations, including at sites controlled by the state supervision authorities;
participate in the organization of work with staff.
acts of land allocation;
geological, hydrological and other data on the territory with the results of soil testing and groundwater analysis;
the general plan of the site with applied buildings and structures, including underground facilities;
acts of acceptance of hidden works;
acts of precipitation of buildings, structures and foundations for equipment;
acts of testing devices providing explosion safety, fire safety, lightning protection and anti-corrosion protection of structures;
acts of testing internal and external water supply systems, fire water supply, sewage, gas supply, heating, heating and ventilation;
acts of individual testing and testing of equipment and technological pipelines;
acts of the working and state acceptance commissions;
approved project documentation with all subsequent changes;
technical passports of buildings, structures, technological units and equipment;
executive working diagrams of primary and secondary electrical connections;
executive work flow charts;
instructions for maintenance of equipment and facilities, job descriptions for each workplace, instructions for labor protection;
fire extinguishing plan;
production and technical documents for the organization of operation of thermal networks (Appendix 2).
The set of the specified documentation should be stored in the technical archive of the organization with the “Documents” stamp and, if the property (lease; economic management) changes, be transferred in full to the new owner (tenant), who is obliged to ensure its storage.
The list should be reviewed and re-approved at least once every 3 years.
Color, conventions, letter sizes and location of labels must comply with GOST 14202.
Schemes of heat networks can be either on paper or in electronic form.
All changes in installations made during operation should be immediately made to production diagrams, drawings and instructions signed by the person in charge, indicating his position and the date the change was made. Information about changes should be communicated to all employees (with a record in the order book) for which knowledge of these schemes and instructions is mandatory.
Operational schemes located in the dispatching service should reflect the actual state of the heating network, pumping stations, central heating units at a given time (they are in operation, in reserve or under repair) and the position of the shut-off valves (open, closed).
criteria and limits of the safe condition and operating modes of the installation;
the order of start-up, shutdown and maintenance of equipment, maintenance of buildings and structures during normal operation and in emergency conditions;
the procedure for admission to inspection, repair and testing of equipment, buildings and structures;
requirements for labor safety, explosion and fire safety.
list of instructions for servicing equipment, equipment diagrams and devices, knowledge of which is mandatory for employees in a given position;
rights, duties and responsibilities of the employee;
relationships with higher, subordinate and other staff.
Depending on local conditions, the volume of operational documentation can be supplemented by the decision of the chief engineer of the organization.
tapes with recordings of readings of recording devices – 3 years;
tape recordings of operational negotiations in normal conditions – 10 days, if there is no instruction to extend the period;
tape recordings of operational negotiations in case of accidents and other irregularities – 3 months, unless instructions are given to extend the period.
Energy and Energy Management
accounting of coolant flow and heat energy;
rationing, monitoring and analysis of the specific consumption of network water and electricity, the loss of heat energy and heat carriers;
analysis of technical and economic indicators to assess the status of heating networks and their modes of operation;
analysis of the effectiveness of organizational and technical measures for energy saving;
economic incentives for personnel to save coolant and heat energy;
maintaining the established statistical reporting.
Maintenance and repair
During maintenance, it is necessary to carry out control operations (inspection, supervision of compliance with operating instructions, technical tests and technical condition checks) and restoration operations (adjustment and adjustment, cleaning, lubrication, replacement of failed parts without significant disassembly, removal of various small defects).
When overhauling, the serviceability and the full or close to full service life of the units must be restored, replacing or restoring any of their parts, including the base ones.
In the event of current repairs, the operability of the installations must be restored, and their individual parts replaced and (or) restored.
When planning maintenance and repair, the calculation of the labor intensity of the repair, its duration, staffing requirements, as well as materials, components and spare parts should be carried out.
For all types of repairs it is necessary to draw up annual and monthly plans (charts). Annual repair plans are approved by the chief engineer of the organization.
The plans for the repairs of the organization’s heating networks should be linked to the heat source equipment repair plan.
preparation of maintenance and repairs;
equipment withdrawal for repair;
assessment of the technical condition of heating networks and the preparation of defect statements;
maintenance and repair;
acceptance of equipment from the repair;
monitoring and reporting on the performance of maintenance and repair.
Protective equipment, devices and tools used in the maintenance of equipment, buildings and structures should be subject to timely inspection and testing in accordance with applicable labor protection regulations.
In each district, site, pumping station, central heating station and other objects, as well as vehicles of the field crews, there should be first-aid kits or first-aid bags with a constant supply of medicines and medical supplies.
Buildings and facilities of heat networks and heat points must be equipped with fire-fighting water supply, fire detection and extinguishing installations in accordance with the requirements of regulatory and technical documents.
Employees of organizations must undergo fire-fighting instruc- tion, regularly participate in fire-prevention trainings, and undergo a PEF knowledge test.
3. TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAT NETWORKS, HEAT PARTS AND PUMPING STATIONS
Technical requirements for heat networks
It is allowed to use non-metallic pipes for pipelines of heat networks and heat points at a water temperature of 115 ° C and lower at pressures up to 1.6 MPa, if their quality meets sanitary requirements and complies with heat carrier parameters.
The use of fittings made of brass and bronze on the pipelines of heat networks is allowed at a coolant temperature no higher than 250 ° C.
For pipelines of heat networks, except for heat points and hot water supply networks, it is not allowed to use valves:
from gray iron in areas with an estimated outdoor temperature for heating design below minus 10 ° C;
ductile iron – in areas with an estimated outdoor temperature for heating design below minus 30 ° С;
from high-strength cast iron in areas with an estimated outdoor temperature for heating design below minus 40 ° С.
On draining, purge and drainage devices, gray cast iron fittings are not allowed.
When laying pipelines in passage tunnels (collectors), the height of the tunnel (collector) in the light should be at least 2 m, and the width of the passage between the insulated pipelines – not less than 0.7 m.
At the locations of valves and equipment, the tunnel width should be sufficient for convenient maintenance of installed valves and equipment. When laying several pipelines in tunnels, their mutual placement should ensure convenient repair of pipelines and replacement of their individual parts.
The number of hatches for cameras should include:
when the internal area of the chambers is from 2.5 to 6 m 2 – not less than two, located diagonally;
when the internal area of the chambers 6 m 2 and more – four.
Passage channels must have access hatches with ladders or brackets. The distance between the hatches should be no more than 300 m, and in the case of joint laying with other pipelines, no more than 50 m. The entrance hatches should also be provided at all end points of the dead-end sections, at the turn of the route and at the fittings.
Tracing should exclude the possibility of formation of water stagnant areas.
Vent ducts should be installed to remove air at the highest points of the pipelines.
on all pipelines of the heating network from the heat source, regardless of the parameters of the coolant and the diameters of the pipelines and on condensate lines to the condensate collection tank; duplication of reinforcement inside and outside the building is not allowed;
on water heating network pipelines with a diameter of 100 mm and more at a distance of no more than 1000 m from each other (sectional valves) with a jumper device between the supply and return pipes with a diameter of 0.3 pipe diameter, but not less than 50 mm; two valves and a control valve between them with a diameter of 25 mm must be installed on the bridge;
in nodes of branches of water and steam heat networks on pipelines with a diameter of more than 100 mm, as well as in nodes on pipelines of branches to individual buildings, regardless of the diameter of the pipeline.
When underground installation of valves and valves with electric drive should be placed in the chambers with elevated pavilions or in underground chambers with natural ventilation, providing air parameters in accordance with the specifications of the actuators to the valve.
When above-ground laying of heat networks on low, stand-alone supports for valves and electrically operated valves, metal covers should be provided to prevent unauthorized persons from accessing and protecting them from precipitation, and on transit highways, as a rule, pavilions; when laying on racks or high freestanding supports – visors (canopies) to protect valves from precipitation.
The use of flange connections is allowed only for connecting pipelines to fittings and equipment parts with flanges.
Threaded connections are allowed for connection of cast iron fittings on pipelines of category IV with a conditional passage of not more than 100 mm.
All piping elements with a temperature of the outer surface of the wall above 45 ° C, located in accessible to service personnel places, should be covered with thermal insulation, the temperature of the outer surface of which should not exceed 45 ° C. The use of hydrophilic backfill insulation in thermal networks, as well as printed insulation when laying pipelines in sleeves (cases) is not allowed.
The temperature of the discharged water should not exceed 40 ° C. It is allowed to pump water directly from the pipelines without breaking the jet through the waste wells.
Water discharging directly into the heating network chambers or onto the surface of the earth is not allowed.
When above-ground laying of pipelines over an undeveloped area, concreted pits with water from their cuvettes, trays or pipelines should be provided for draining water.
It is allowed to provide for the diversion of water from the waste wells or receivers to natural reservoirs and to the relief of the area, subject to agreement in the prescribed manner.
When water is drained into the domestic sewage system, a water seal should be provided on the gravity flow pipe, and in the case of the possibility of a back flow of water, an additional shut-off valve should be provided.
Allowed to drain water directly from the drained section of the pipeline to the adjacent section, as well as from the supply pipeline to the return.
temperatures in the supply and return pipelines in front of the sectionalizing valves and in the return pipeline of branches with a diameter of 300 mm and more in front of the valve along the water flow;
water pressure in the supply and return pipelines before and after the sectioning valves and control devices, in the forward and return pipelines of the branches before the valve;
pressure of steam in pipelines of branches in front of the valve.
For compensators, taps, tees and other bent elements of pipelines, factory-made steep-curved taps with a bend radius of at least one pipe diameter along the conditional passage should be used.
Normally bent bends with a bending radius of at least 3.5 of the nominal outer diameter of the pipe are allowed.
For pipelines III and IV categories it is allowed to use welded sector taps. The angle of the sector should not exceed 30 degrees. The distance between adjacent welds on the inner side of the outlet should provide the ability to control these welds on both sides on the outer surface.
Welded sector taps are allowed to apply on condition of their manufacture with internal welding of welds.
Stamp-welded taps are allowed to be used with one or two longitudinal welds of diametrical arrangement, subject to inspection by radiography or ultrasonic flaw detection.
It is not allowed to use parts of pipelines, including bends from electrically welded pipes with a spiral seam.
The use of taps, the curvature of which is formed by the folds (corrugation) on the inside of the knee, is not allowed.
Steeply curved bends can be welded together without a straight section. Steeply curved and welded bends cannot be welded directly into the pipe without a choke (pipe, pipe).
Thermal insulation of flange joints, fittings, sections of pipelines under periodic control, compensators should be removable.
When using heat-insulating materials or pipelines, which exclude the possibility of corrosion of the surface of the pipes, a protective coating against corrosion is allowed not to provide.
measurement of pressure, temperature and coolant flow rate in the supply and return pipelines of the supply water, steam, condensate, make-up water;
emergency warning limit values of the flow rate of make-up water, pressure drop between the flow and return lines;
metering station of thermal energy and coolants.
Technical requirements for heat points and pumping stations
transformation of the type of coolant or change its parameters;
control of heat carrier parameters;
accounting of heat energy, coolant flow and condensate;
regulation of coolant flow and distribution of heat consumption systems;
protection of local systems from emergency increase of coolant parameters;
filling and feeding systems of heat consumption;
collection, cooling, condensate return and quality control;
accumulation of thermal energy;
water treatment for hot water systems.
Within thermal points, it is allowed to use armature of ductile gray and high-strength cast iron in accordance with the Rules for the Construction and Safe Operation of steam and hot water pipelines , as well as brass and bronze armature.
When installing cast iron fittings, it should be protected from bending stresses.
On draining, purge and drainage devices, gray cast iron reinforcement is not allowed.
In the absence of a check valve or its failure, pump operation is not allowed.
The installation of a check valve in the suction line of the pump is not allowed.
Overflow regulators and steam traps must have by-pass piping.
In heat points it is allowed to fasten pipelines of a larger diameter to pipelines of smaller diameter provided that the bearing pipes are designed for strength.
Thermal points should have fittings with valves, which can be connected to the water supply system and compressed air for flushing and emptying the system. During operation, the water line must be disconnected.
The connection of drainage outlets with sewage must be done with a visible gap.
Reagents and materials used for water treatment that have direct contact with water entering the hot water supply system should be authorized by the Russian Ministry of Health.
The selection of the coolant from the pipe on which the safety device is installed is not allowed.
Start drains should be installed:
before valves on the input of the steam line to the heat point;
on the distribution manifold;
after shut-off valves on steam pipelines with a slope of the branch towards the shut-off valves (at the lowest points of the steam pipe)
Permanent drainage should be installed at the lowest points of the steam line.
Thermal points with variable steam flow must be equipped with pressure regulators. Steam pressure regulation of stop valves is not allowed.
In pumping stations, regardless of their purpose, mud pumps should be installed in front of the pumps along the coolant.
remote alarm of equipment malfunction or violation of the setpoint of monitored parameters (generalized signal);
telecontrol by starting and stopping pumps and electric valves with operational importance;
tele-alarm position of valves with electric drives, pumps and switching equipment, providing supply voltage to the pump;
telemetry of pressure, temperature, coolant flow, in electric motors – stator current.
If necessary, the following should be provided for in the heating network regulation nodes:
telemetry of coolant pressure in supply and return pipelines, temperature in return pipe lines;
remote control valves and control valves that have operational value.
The armature on the bypass valves that are subject to remote control must be electrically operated; in the control circuits, blocking of the main gate valve electric motors and not the bypass shall be ensured.
Telemechanization should ensure the operation of pumping stations and central heating stations without permanent attendants.
Technical requirements for condensate collection and return systems
Condensate collection tanks must be equipped with:
alarm devices of the upper and lower levels, thermometers for measuring the temperature of the condensate;
devices for sampling condensate;
vacuum gauges to control overpressure;
overpressure safety devices;
permanent metal stairs outside, and with a tank height of more than 1500 mm – permanent stairs inside.
In open systems for collecting condensate, tanks must be additionally equipped with devices for communicating them with the atmosphere.
Pump characteristics should allow their parallel operation in all condensate return modes.
flow meters to measure the amount of pumped condensate;
pressure gauges for measuring the pressure in the collecting condensate line as well as at the condensate line before and after the transfer pump;
instruments for measuring the temperature of the pumped condensate;
Technical requirements for hot water storage tanks
The operation of tanks without anticorrosive protection of the inner surface is not allowed.
As anticorrosive protection of tanks, sealants, cathodic protection, metallization aluminum coating, epoxy compounds, paints and enamels that meet the requirements of existing technical and technical documentation can be used.
Protection against corrosion of the inner surface of the tank with sealing fluid AG-4 and AG-4I provided by standard projects can be replaced with new protective fluid AG-5I, which has a quality certificate and hygienic certificate.
automatic control systems of the maximum and minimum water levels in the storage tank;
special mechanical devices that prevent the descent of the sealing fluid into the heating system and overflow it.
pipeline supplying water to the tank with a float valve, in front of which the valves are installed;
overflow pipe at the height of the maximum permissible water level in the tank; the capacity of the overflow pipe must not be less than the capacity of all pipes that bring water to the tank;
drain (drainage) pipe connected to the bottom of the tank and to the overflow pipe, with a valve (valve) on the attached section of the pipeline;
drainage pipe to drain water from the pan;
circulation pipe to maintain, if necessary, a constant temperature of hot water in the tank during the breaks in its analysis;
A non-return valve with a valve (valve) must be installed on the circulation pipe;
air (land) pipe; the cross section of the mouthpipe should provide free entry into the tank and free release of air or steam from it (if there is a steam cushion) that prevents the formation of a vacuum (vacuum) when pumping water from the tank and increasing the pressure above atmospheric when it is filled;
equipment for monitoring the water level, the alarm limit levels with the output of signals into the room with a permanent stay of the staff on duty, as well as with interlocks to ensure the complete cessation of water supply to the tank when the maximum level is reached, turning on the backup siphon pumps when the working pumps are turned off, switching the power source of the equipment associated with the battery packs to the backup when the voltage on the main source disappears;
instrumentation for measuring the temperature of the water in the tanks and the pressure in the inlet and outlet pipelines;
thermal insulation, protected by a coating layer from weathering.
To avoid uneven precipitation of the sand base of the tanks, devices must be provided to remove surface and groundwater.
Protection of pipelines of heat networks against corrosion
Coatings with the best technical and economic indicators that meet the requirements of work in heat networks should be used instead of those listed in the SNiP
As a means of protecting pipes from external corrosion, electrochemical protection should also be applied by cathode polarization of pipes using cathode, electrical drainage (polarized or reinforced electrical drainage) installations or protectors.
Regardless of the corrosive conditions of laying of heat networks, ECP facilities should be provided on the pipelines of heat networks in the places of their passage through the cases.
the presence of water in the channel or channel drift with soil when the water or soil reaches the insulation structure (if it is impossible to remove water or soil from the channel);
moistening the heat-insulating structure with drop moisture from the channel overlapping, reaching the surface of the pipes, or moisture flowing down the shield support;
the presence on the surface of pipes of corrosion traces in the form of ulcers or stains with corrosion products on certain parts of the surface of the metal pipes.
corrosive activity of soils, rated as “high”;
the dangerous influence of constant and alternating stray currents on the pipelines of heat networks.
Before coating the surface of the pipe must be prepared. Technology training must meet the requirements of the technical conditions for coating.
Coating in the field is allowed for the protection of sections of welded joints of pipelines and valves, with the elimination of damage to the coating, as well as for small amounts of repair work.
Inspection should be carried out at the factory after coating on the pipes and on the track after hydraulic testing of the pipeline and coating on the areas of welded butt joints.
Quality control should include:
coating thickness measurement.
An external examination reveals visible defects in the coating (delamination, cracks, chips) that were made during coating or during transportation of pipes.
All defects found must be repaired.
Glass coating should have one hundred percent continuity, not have bubbles, spalls, cracks and other defects, exposing the first layer of enamel or metal.
Transportation, loading, unloading and installation of pipes should be done in ways that prevent damage to the coating.
When carrying out welding work on butt joints, the areas of enamelled pipes adjacent to the weld joints should be protected with screens that exclude splashes of metal on the glass enamel coating.
Sections of welded butt joints of pipelines made of enamelled pipes, as well as places with a damaged coating should be enameled on the track using mobile enameling installations. In the absence of such installations, the protection of sections of welded butt joints of pipelines with coolant with water at a temperature of up to 150 ° C must be made of organosilicate or insulated coating.
In the absence of the UEC system, the decision on the need for an ECP is taken by the owner of the heating network.
in chambers or places of installation of fixed supports outside the chambers;
in the places of installation of electrically insulating flanges;
at the intersection of heating networks with rail tracks electrified transport; when crossing more than two paths, checkpoints are installed on both sides of the intersection with the device, if necessary, special cameras;
at the intersection or parallel laying with steel engineering networks and structures;
in the places of convergence of the network of thermal networks with points of connection of the suction cables to the rails of electrified roads.
artificial reduction and removal of groundwater and storm water;
protection of pipelines from moisture in areas of increased danger of moisture;
limiting the influence of stray currents from their sources.
Automation and instrumentation
a) automatic regulators and interlocks, providing:
the specified water pressure in the supply and return pipelines of the water heating networks with maintaining the constant pressure in the supply pipe “after itself” and in the return – “before itself” (pressure regulator);
division (dissection) of the water network into hydraulically independent zones with increasing water pressure above the permissible;
the inclusion of make-up devices in the cutting nodes to maintain the static pressure of water in the disconnected area at a given level;
b) selective devices with the necessary valves for measuring:
water temperatures in the supply (selectively) and return pipelines in front of the sectioning valves and, as a rule, in the return pipeline of branches with a diameter of 300 mm and above before the valve along the water flow;
pressure in the supply and return pipelines before and after the sectioning valves and control devices and, as a rule, in the supply and return pipelines of branches with a diameter of 300 mm or more before the valve;
water consumption in supply and return pipelines of branches with a diameter of 400 mm and above;
pressure of steam in pipelines of branches in front of the valve.
constant set pressure in the supply or return pipelines of pumping stations in any network operation modes:
the inclusion of a backup pump installed in the return pipe when the pressure rises above the permissible pressure in the intake pipe of the pump station or installed on the flow pipe when the pressure in the pressure pipe of the pump station decreases;
automatic activation of the backup pump (ATS) when the operating or pressure drop in the discharge nozzle is disconnected.
regulation of heat consumption in the heating system and limiting the maximum consumption of network water at the consumer;
set water temperature in the hot water system;
maintaining static pressure in heat consumption systems with their independent connection:
set pressure in the return pipeline or the required pressure drop in the supply and return pipelines of heat networks:
protection of heat consumption systems from elevated pressure or water temperature in the event of a danger of exceeding permissible limit parameters;
switching on the backup pump when the worker is disconnected
stopping the supply of water to the storage tank when the upper level of the water in the tank is reached and the water is discharged from the tank when the lower level is reached
protection of the heating system against emptying:
switching on and off of drainage pumps in underground heat points for given water levels in the drainage receiver.
indicating manometers on the supply and return pipelines before and after the inlet valves, on each flow pipe after the valves on the distribution manifold, on the suction and discharge nozzles of each pump;
showing thermometers on common supply and return pipelines, on all return pipelines in front of the modular collectors (use of thermometers with mercury filling is not allowed in open heating systems and hot water systems);
recording flow meters and thermometers on supply and return pipelines;
metering devices for heat and coolant consumption.
recording and summarizing steam flow meters;
recording and indicating manometers and thermometers on the input of steam lines;
summarizing flow meters, showing manometers and thermometers on condensate lines;
showing manometers and thermometers before and after the pressure reducing valves.
on pipelines with a diameter of 70-200 mm inclined to the axis of the pipeline against the flow of the flow or along the axis of the pipe in the knee of the pipeline:
on pipelines with a diameter of less than 70 mm in special expanders;
on pipelines with a diameter of more than 200 mm perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline.
The maximum working pressure measured by the device must be within 2/3 of the scale maximum at constant load and 1/2 of the scale maximum at variable. It is recommended to measure the minimum pressure within at least 1/3 of the maximum scale.
The upper limit of the scale of recording and indicating thermometers should be equal to the maximum temperature of the measured medium. The upper limit of the scale of the recording manometers should correspond to one and a half times the working pressure of the medium being measured.
The minimum flow rate of the measured medium taken into account by variable-pressure flow meters must be at least 30% of the maximum scale.
temperature of water entering the hot water system (minimum-maximum);
pressure in the return pipelines of heating systems or in the return pipeline of distribution heating networks at the outlet from the central heating station (minimum-maximum);
minimum pressure drop in supply and return pipelines of the heat network at the inlet and outlet of the central heating station;
water or condensate levels in tanks and drainage pits.
When using heat consumption regulators for heating, an alarm should be provided that the specified deviation of the regulated parameter is exceeded.
timely submission in verification of measuring instruments (SP), subject to state control and supervision;
Calibration testing of SI, not subject to verification;
maintenance, repair of MI, metrological control and supervision. Performance of work on metrological support, monitoring and supervision of their implementation should be performed by instrumentation and automation services.
Maintenance and repair of MI should be carried out by the personnel of the instrumentation service and automation of the organization.
4. ACCEPTANCE AND ENTRY INTO OPERATION OF HEAT NETWORKS AND HEAT UNITS
Technical conditions for connection to the heat network
In the case of connection of complex objects with different thermal loads for technical purposes, technical conditions can be issued in two stages: preliminary and final.
In cases where the design arises the need to deviate from the technical conditions, these deviations must be agreed by the customer with the heat supply organization that issued the technical conditions.
Pipelines supervised by the bodies of the Gosgortekhnadzor of Russia must be registered with these bodies before the launch in the prescribed manner.
individual tests of individual systems, units and mechanisms;
comprehensive testing equipment.
Flushing of pipelines of heat networks with a diameter of up to 500 mm inclusively must be carried out using the hydropneumatic method in accordance with the Methodological Guidelines for the hydropneumatic washing of water heating networks.
Disinfection of pipelines of heat networks and heat points of open heating systems should be carried out in accordance with the Sanitary rules for the design and operation of the centralized hot water supply – SanPiN No. 4723-88 , SNiP
staffed, trained operational and maintenance personnel;
developed and approved operational instructions, instructions on labor protection and operational schemes, technical documentation on accounting and reporting;
automatic means of emergency and fire protection, emergency lighting, ventilation are involved;
monitored and controlled control systems;
obtained operating permits from supervisory authorities.
Comprehensive testing of heat networks and heat points is considered to be carried out under the condition of normal and continuous work under load for at least 24 hours with the nominal pressure provided for in the project.
In the absence of the possibility of carrying out comprehensive testing at rated load and coolant parameters, which cannot be ensured for any reasons not related to defects and subquality work, or not performing the work envisaged for the start-up complex, the decision to conduct integrated testing, as well as the limit parameters and loads are set by the acceptance committee and noted in the act of acceptance for operation of the starting complex.
drawing up an act of admission of a power plant to operation;
issuance of permits for connecting power installations.
After consideration of the submitted documentation and inspection of the power plant, an inspection certificate is drawn up by the state energy supervision inspector.
The power installation is connected within 5 days from the date of issue of the permit. After connection, the heat supply organization is obliged within 24 hours to notify the territorial department of the state energy supervision agency about this.
For the connection of power plants without the admission of a state energy supervision inspector, the heads of heat supply and heat consuming organizations are responsible in the prescribed manner.
The date of commissioning is the date of signing of the act by the acceptance committee.
5. STARTING HEAT NETWORKS
The program for starting the heating network should include:
the scheme of the pump-heating installation of the heat source and its mode of operation during the start-up of the network in separate, clearly demarcated in time, stages;
operational network of the heating network during start-up;
the sequence and order of start-up of each individual highway or section;
time of filling each line, taking into account its volume and speed of filling;
the calculated static pressure of each filled pipeline and the effect of this pressure on adjacent pipelines of the network;
the composition of the start-up team, the deployment and responsibilities of each performer during each stage of the launch;
the organization and means of communication of the head of the start-up brigade with the duty dispatcher of the CEE, the duty engineer of the production area, the duty engineer of the heat source, as well as between individual members of the brigade.
The work program before start should be transferred:
the head of the start-up brigade;
the head of the heat source;
Duty engineer of the OETS operational area.
All defects of pipelines, valves, compensators, supports, drainage and pumping devices, air vent, instrumentation, as well as hatches, stairs, brackets and other, identified as a result of network inspection, should be eliminated before starting.
Before starting, the start-up team leader must personally instruct all the personnel involved in the launch, give each member of the start-up team specific instructions in accordance with local work and possible and mode changes, as well as instructions on safety rules for all launch operations.
The duty engineer of the operational area immediately reports to the duty dispatcher of the CEE about the completion of the launch operations.
Water heating network start
The pipelines of the heating network should be filled with water at a temperature not higher than 70 ° C.
In order to avoid hydraulic shocks and better removal of air from the pipelines, the maximum hourly water flow rate (Gb m 3 / h) when filling pipelines of the heat supply network with a nominal diameter (Du mm) should not exceed:
Gv – 100 150 250 300 350 400 450 500 600
St – 10 15 25 35 50 65 85 100 150
a) on the pipeline section to be filled, close all drainage devices and valves on the bridges between the supply and return pipelines, disconnect all branches and subscriber inputs, open all vent valves of the network to be filled and sectional valves, except the head ones;
b) open the head gate bypass on the return pipeline of the filled area, and then partially and the valve itself and fill the pipeline.
For the entire filling time, the opening degree of the gate valves is set and changed only as directed and authorized by the CEE dispatcher;
c) as the network is filled up and the air flow is stopped, close the vent;
d) at the end of the filling of the return pipeline, open the end jumper between the supply and return pipelines and start filling the supply pipeline with water in the same manner as the return one;
e) filling of the pipeline is considered complete when the air outlet from all air taps is stopped and the observing air vents will report to the head of the start-up brigade about their closure. The end of filling is characterized by an increase in the pressure in the collector of the heat network to the static pressure value or to the pressure in the make-up pipeline. After completing the filling, open the head valve on the return pipe completely;
f) after the completion of filling the pipelines, it is necessary to open the air valves several times within 2-3 hours in order to make sure that the air has been completely removed. Make-up pumps must be in operation to maintain the static pressure of the filled network.
Filling of distribution networks and branches is carried out in the same way as the main trunk pipelines.
a) open the valves at the inlet and outlet of the network water at the network water heaters; if there is a bypass line of water heaters, open the valves on this line (in this case, the valves of the water heaters remain closed);
b) open the valves on the suction nozzles of the network pumps, the valves on the discharge nozzles remain closed;
c) turn on one mains pump;
d) first smoothly open the bypass of the valve on the discharge pipe of the mains pump, and then the valve and establish circulation;
e) turn on the steam supply to the network water heaters and start heating the network water at a speed of no more than 30 ° C / h;
e) after the establishment of the circulation mode by the make-up regulator, to establish in the return collector of the source of thermal energy the design pressure according to the piezometric schedule during the operating mode.
At the same time, the heating systems after the elevator and the branches to the ventilation and hot water systems must be tightly shut off with valves.
The establishment of circulation in the branches to the systems of heat consumption, connected without elevators or with pumps;
should be made through these systems with the inclusion of the latter in the work that should be carried out by agreement and with the participation of consumers.
The valves on the heat points of the heat consumption systems that are not to be turned on when establishing the circulation mode in the pipelines of the heating network must be tightly closed, and the drain valves after them must be in the open state to avoid filling with water and pressure build-up in these systems.
open the valves that separate the pump from the network;
open the valve on the suction side of the pump; the valve on its discharge side remains closed;
turn on the motor of the pump unit;
smoothly open the valve on the discharge pipe of the pump, and if there is a bypass on the valve, first open the bypass and then the valve (in this case, observe the ammeter reading);
close the valve on the bypass pipeline through which the network was filled;
alternately turn on the required number of pumps to achieve a given hydraulic mode, and the start of each subsequent pump is similar to the start of the first pump;
set the standby pump to the automatic reserve switch-on position;
set up the installed pressure regulators and protection in accordance with the settings map approved by the Chief Engineer of the CEET;
after the establishment of the circulation regime, before switching on the consumers, to carry out tests (testing) of the means of automatic regulation and protection.
Start-up of pumping stations on the return pipelines is carried out before switching on the heat consumption systems, and on the supply systems, in the process of switching on the heat consumption systems, as the heat load sets.
Features start water heating network at negative outdoor temperatures
If the water-heating installation, the heat source does not work, water is supplied through the bypass of the head valves to the supply and return pipes. If the water-heating installation is working, water is supplied through the head valve bypass into the return pipeline and through a specially inserted jumper after the head valves into the supply pipe, and the head valve (and bypass) on the supply pipe must be tightly closed.
a) before starting to fill the pipelines, open all draining devices and air vents, as well as gate valves on the dam between supply and return lines before sectioning valves; air vents should be closed after the termination of the release of air through them, and the draining devices – after the temperature of the drained water exceeds 30 ° C;
b) after filling the pipelines of the head sectioned section and closing all air vent and drainage devices, turn on the mains pump and slowly open the valve on the pump discharge pipe (with the valve open on the suction side of the pump) circulate in this area through a jumper in front of the section gate valves; immediately after the creation of circulation, supply steam to the network water heater to replenish heat loss in the filled sections of pipelines;
c) the filling of subsequent sectioned areas and the establishment of a circulation regime in them should be carried out in compliance with the requirements specified in
The make-up device must always compensate for the loss of water from the head section;
d) after filling the main pipelines and creating circulation in them, the distribution networks should be filled in compliance with the above requirements. Branches that have a greater length should be filled in separate sectional areas; each subsequent section is filled after the circulation has been created in the previous one;
e) filling out branches to consumers should be done after filling all main and distribution networks, while circulation is created through the mixing lines of the elevators with the heat consumption systems disconnected (by agreement and with the participation of consumers). Heat consumption systems connected to the heat networks directly (without mixing) and pumped mixing systems should be filled together with the heating point, while circulation is created through the heat consumption system (by agreement and with the participation of consumers);
e) after filling the entire network and creating a circulation in it, all valves on the bridges between the supply and return pipelines at the sectionalizing valves should be fully closed.
a) through the bypass of the head valve, supply water to the return pipeline and through the jumper after the head valves – into the supply pipe, while the head valve with the bypass on the supply pipe must be completely closed;
b) after the completion of filling the pipelines of the sectioned section, close the valves on the bulkhead behind the head valves, through which the supply pipeline was filled;
c) by slow opening of the bypass at the head valve on the supply pipe, establish the circulation mode in the sectioned section.
If problems arise during the filling of the pipelines of the heat supply network and the need for emptying the pipelines, it is necessary to open all draining devices and air vents so that there is no water left in any low-lying point.
Check readiness and the inclusion of heat points and heat consumption systems
in closed heating systems – once every four years;
in open heating systems – once every two years.
After the overhaul of the heat consumption system should be washed, regardless of the prescription of the last flush.
Flushing should be done hydropneumatically.
When flushing systems with water only, the speed of the latter should exceed the operational one by 3-5 times, which is achieved using a special pump.
According to the results of washing the consumer must draw up an act.
a) the implementation of the repair plan, as well as the quality of the work performed; for installations put into operation for the first time after installation, the compliance of the work performed with the project agreed with the SEET should be checked;
b) the state of the chambers and passages of heat pipes owned by the consumer;
c) the condition of the premises of the central heat supply station and heat points in individual buildings, as well as the condition of pipelines, fittings, thermal insulation, located in the heat points;
d) availability and condition of instrumentation, means of autoregulation and protection, instruments for control and accounting of thermal energy, the presence of flow meters;
e) the presence and compliance with the calculated values of the size of the throttle devices;
e) the availability of passports, local instructions and schemes for the attendants and their compliance with the actual condition of the equipment;
g) the state of thermal insulation on the distribution pipelines of the heat consumption system;
h) the absence of unforeseen water faucets in the systems;
i) the absence of direct connections of the equipment of the consumers’ heat points to the water supply and sewage systems;
j) hydraulic density of equipment of heat points and heat consumption systems.
Elevator nodes, heaters and water heaters of hot water supply and heating with a pressure of 1.25 workers, but not less than 1 MPa (10 kgf / cm 2);
heating systems with cast-iron heating devices with a pressure of 1.25 workers, but not lower than 0.6 MPa (6 kgf / cm);
Panel heating systems with a pressure of 1 MPa (10 kgf / cm 2).
Hydraulic testing of the strength and density of the heat point and heat consumption systems should be carried out at positive outdoor temperatures. When the outside air temperature is below 0 ° C, hydraulic testing is carried out only in exceptional cases.
no perspiration of welds or leaks from heating devices, pipelines, fittings and other equipment;
during hydraulic testing of water and steam heat consumption systems for 5 minutes, the pressure drop did not exceed 0.02 MPa (0.2 kgf / cm 2);
when testing systems of panel heating, the pressure drop for 15 minutes did not exceed 0.01 MPa (0.1 kgf / cm 2).
If the results of the hydraulic test do not meet the specified conditions, the consumer should identify and repair the leaks, after which the systems should be subjected to repeated hydraulic tests for strength and density.
Control over the quality of water in heat consumption systems is carried out by chemical analysis.
If there are several main heat pipelines that are fed from a common source of thermal energy, the inclusion of heat consumption systems connected to each highway is made independently of one another through the common Start-up Program; when determining the number of simultaneously filled systems, the performance of the water-heating installation and the make-up device of the heat source should be taken into account.
Starting steam heating network
heating and purging of steam lines;
filling and flushing condensate lines;
connection of heat consumption systems to the steam network.
Local start-up instructions must be approved by the Chief Engineer of the CEET.
Heating and purging of steam lines
While simultaneously heating the line and its branches, the valve on all the heated branches must be fully opened.
Before heating the steam line, the drainage devices of the heated section must be fully open, which are also used for air release.
The steam traps on the heated steam line should be turned off, and the steam line drainage at the installation sites of the steam traps should be switched to direct purging to the atmosphere. In case of parallel laying of several steam lines, the starting drains of each of them should be separate and not connected to each other.
In the absence of a bypass on the head valve, steam is supplied to the steam line by slightly opening the valve itself.
If it is impossible to eliminate the blockage by blowing it is necessary to stop heating, relieve all the pressure, remove and clean the shut-off valves, clean the fitting. After cleaning, resume heating.
It should be borne in mind that the flow of condensate through the drainage device is provided only if there is an overpressure in the heated pipeline.
After the drainage devices are closed, the steam traps that were shut off during the start-up period should be activated.
After increasing the pressure, all the steam lines should be re-inspected, and the points of evaporation and defects identified on them should be eliminated. After the start of the steam line it is necessary to check the tightness of the bolts of flange connections.
Purging is done through valves specially installed in the end part of the steam line (and its branches) by completely opening them to the exhaust of steam into the atmosphere. Sound attenuators can be used to reduce noise.
When purging the steam line, all necessary measures should be taken to protect people from burns and other damage, as well as to have unhindered access to the valve through which purging is performed.
Filling and flushing condensate lines
Bleeding of condensate with steam is not allowed.
After the condensate line is filled with condensate or softened deaerated water, a test wash should be carried out with this water, during which the quality of the initial and discharged water is checked by chemical analyzes. Control flushing continues as long as the quality of the discharged water meets the established requirements.
6. OPERATION OF HEAT NETWORKS AND HEAT UNITS
Operation of heat networks
use heat networks for their intended purpose;
to carry out maintenance and repair of heating networks, heating stations, pumping stations;
have personnel that meet qualification requirements; conduct timely training and testing of employees;
have copies of licenses of organizations performing maintenance and repair work under the contract;
have legal acts and regulatory and technical documents (rules, regulations and instructions) establishing the procedure for conducting work in the heat and power economy;
organize and exercise control over compliance with occupational health and safety requirements;
ensure the availability and operation of technical systems of accounting and control;
comply with the requirements of state supervision;
to provide the technical examination of heating networks and heating units in the terms established by this Instruction;
to ensure the protection of power facilities from intrusion and unauthorized actions of unauthorized persons;
inform the relevant authorities about accidents or technological violations that occurred at power facilities;
take measures to localize and eliminate the consequences of accidents and other violations, take part in investigating the causes of accidents, take measures to eliminate them, prevent and account for them.
to maintain in good condition pipelines and equipment, construction and other structures of heating networks, carrying out timely inspection and repair;
monitor the operation of compensators, supports, valves, drains, instrumentation and other elements, timely eliminate the identified defects;
timely remove air from the heat pipes, maintain excess pressure at all points of the network and heat consumption systems;
maintain cleanliness in the cells and canals, prevent unauthorized persons from staying in them;
to monitor the state of thermal insulation and anti-corrosion coating using modern instruments and diagnostic methods, as well as by inspection, testing and other methods;
keep records of all damages and identified defects for all types of equipment and analysis of the reasons for them.
The frequency and scope of work on monitoring the condition of the heating network is determined by the technical manager of the organization.
scheduled repairs (current and capital);
putting equipment into reserve or conservation and commissioning from reserve, repair or conservation.
from the side of the heat source – fencing of the territory;
on the consumer’s side, the wall of the chamber in which the valves belonging to the heat supplying organization on the branch to the consumer of the heat are installed.
Borders of service of thermal networks are made out by the bilateral certificate. In the absence of an act of service boundaries are set by balance.
supply to the subscribers of the coolant specified parameters in the estimated quantities;
optimal flow distribution of the coolant in heat networks;
the possibility of joint work of several heat sources on the united heating network and the transition, if necessary, to the separate operation of the sources;
advantageous use of the most economical sources.
On operational (design) schemes, all subscriber systems connected to the network are to be numbered, and on operational schemes, in addition, sectioning and stop valves.
The valves installed on the supply pipe (steam pipe) must be designated with an odd number, and the corresponding valve on the return pipe (condensate pipe) must be marked with an even number.
All gas-hazardous chambers and sections of the route should be marked on the operational scheme of the heating network, and a list of them posted in the operational area of the organization.
The supervision of gas-hazardous chambers should be carried out in accordance with the Safety Regulations for Gas Facilities .
steam lines – purge with steam discharge into the atmosphere;
water networks in closed heating systems and condensate lines – hydropneumatic flushing;
water networks in open heat supply systems by hydropneumatic washing and disinfection followed by repeated washing with drinking water. Re-flushing after disinfection must be carried out until the indicators of discharged water meet the sanitary standards for drinking water.
Connection of subscriber heat networks and heat consumption systems that have not undergone hydropneumatic flushing, and disinfection in open heat supply systems is also not allowed.
Heat pipelines should be filled with water at a temperature not exceeding 70 ° C with the heat consumption systems disconnected.
The start of water heating networks should consist of the following operations:
a) filling pipelines with water;
b) establish circulation;
c) network density checks;
d) the inclusion of consumers and network start-up adjustment.
The launch of steam networks should consist of the following operations:
a) heating and purging steam lines;
b) filling and washing the condensate lines;
c) the inclusion of consumers.
The results of the bypass should be recorded in the report of the locksmith-crawler and recorded in the log book of the bypass and inspection of heating networks.
heating mains – at least once every 10 days during the heating period and once a month during the inter-heating period;
consumers’ heat points – at least once every 2 weeks during the heating period and once a month during the inter-heating period;
Thermal OETS (automated) – daily.
At non-automated heat points of the TETS, round-the-clock duty should be organized during the heating period, during the inter-heating period, by decision of the head of the thermal power plant, the duty at individual TSCs can be replaced by staff bypasses from a nearby TSC (a group served by bypass may include no more than 2-3 TSCs) .
During technical inspection of the pipeline by the inspector of the state mining technical inspection, the presence of the person responsible for the good condition and safe operation of the pipeline is obligatory.
Pipelines that are not covered by these rules should be subject to technical certification in the manner and time specified by the technical manager of the organization operating the heating networks, but at least once every 3 years for constantly used and once a year for seasonally operating heat networks.
The results of the technical examination and conclusions on the possibility of operating the pipeline, indicating the permitted pressure and the dates of the next survey, should be recorded in the pipeline passport by the person who conducted the technical survey.
If during the inspection of the pipeline it is determined that it is in an emergency condition or has serious defects, then the further operation of the pipeline should be prohibited, and a reasonable entry should be made in the passport.
Non-working heat network should be filled only with chemically purified deaerated water.
The operation of the steam traps on the common condensate line without installing check valves is not allowed.
In determining the leakage of the coolant should not be taken into account the flow of water to fill the heat pipes and heat consumption systems during their scheduled maintenance and connection of new sections of the network and consumers, as well as the discharge of water from automatic regulators.
for closed heating systems by dividing the total volume of make-up water by the number of hours the system has been in the filled state;
for open heat supply systems, by subtracting from the total volume of make-up water the amount of water consumed for hot water supply, followed by dividing the difference by the number of hours the system has been in the filled state.
The flow of water spent on start-up filling of heating systems should be determined by the indications of the flow meter or meter on the make-up pipeline.
Technological protection devices may be removed from operation in the following cases:
when networks operate in transient conditions;
in case of obvious failure of protection;
during the elimination of accidents;
during the repair of equipment.
The operability of technological protection devices must be periodically checked in the time and in the amount specified in the local instructions.
When justifying it is allowed to accept quantitative or qualitative and quantitative regulation of heat supply.
If there is a load of hot water supply, the minimum water temperature in the supply pipe of the network should not be lower than:
70 ° С – for closed heating systems;
60 ° С – for open heating systems.
Hydraulic regimes should be developed for the next 3-5 years, taking into account the real growth of heat loads and the construction of new heating networks and pumping stations based on the approved heat supply scheme. Every year, the adjustment of the operating hydraulic regimes is carried out taking into account the actual thermal loads and the switching circuit of the heating networks.
The water pressure in the return pipelines of water heating networks when operating network pumps must be at any point not lower than 0.05 MPa and not higher than acceptable for pipelines and equipment of the heat source, heating networks, heat points, directly connected heat consumption systems and ensure filling of local systems.
The temperature of the water in the supply line of the water heating network in accordance with the temperature schedule approved for the heating system should be set to the average outdoor temperature over a period of 18-24 hours determined by the heat network controller depending on the network length, climatic conditions and other factors .
To ensure free opening and closing of valves, periodically, at least 1 time per month, the valve stem and valve must be lubricated, the tightness of the packing seals and the absence of sticking of the moving sealing surfaces to the fixed sealing surfaces of the valve bodies should be checked.
The trimming of fittings and compensator seals is allowed with an overpressure in the pipelines of not more than 0.02 MPa and the temperature of the coolant is not higher than 45 ° C. Replacing the stuffing box of compensators and valves is allowed after the pipeline is completely emptied.
Tightening of bolts of flange connections should be carried out at a pressure in the pipeline of not more than 0.5 MPa.
Operation of leaky or curved bellows expansion joints is not allowed.
Water accumulating in the heat network cells must be periodically or continuously removed by means of mobile or stationary installations.
Operation of thermal points
the required costs and parameters of the network water and steam entering the heat-consuming installation, condensate and return network water returned to the heating network;
heat supply for heating and ventilation needs, depending on meteorological conditions, as well as for the needs of hot water supply in accordance with sanitary and technological standards;
reliable and economical operation of the equipment of the heat point;
maintaining in working condition the means of control, accounting and regulation;
filling and feeding systems of heat consumption;
collection, cooling, condensate return and quality control;
water treatment for hot water systems;
protection of local systems from emergency increase of coolant parameters;
protection of heating systems from emptying.
The need for personnel on duty at a heat point and its duration are set by the management of the organization, depending on local conditions.
Periodically, but at least 1 time in 3 months, thermal points should be examined by the technical manager of the CEET. The results of the inspection should be reflected in the log, which should be located at the substation.
performance of the approved amount of repair work and their quality;
the state of the heat networks belonging to the subscriber;
the state of insulation of residential, public and other buildings;
condition of pipelines, fittings and thermal insulation;
availability and status of instrumentation and automatic controllers;
availability of passports, schematic diagrams and instructions for service personnel;
lack of direct connection of equipment with water supply and sewage;
density of equipment of thermal points.
To detect leakage of network water, the density of water heaters periodically, but at least 1 time in 4 months, should be checked by the pressure of the water supply system or the heat network.
Testing of water heaters for thermal performance should be carried out at least 1 time in 5 years.
The results of quality checks, the amount of condensate returned and its parameters should be recorded in the log of the substation.
Condensate must be supplied continuously to a common condensate line. Periodic pumping is allowed when the condensate return flow rate is less than 3 t / h.
On all condensate lines connected in parallel to the common condensate line, check valves should be installed, the density of which should be checked periodically.
The characteristics of the condensate pumps included in the common condensate line must ensure simultaneous parallel operation of these pumps.
Operation of pumping stations
The operation of the float device for automatic switching on of pumps in drainage pumping stations should be checked at least 2 times a week.
Comprehensive testing should be carried out according to a program approved by the technical manager of the organization operating the heating network and agreed with the technical guidance of the heat source. Responsible for the comprehensive testing of pumping stations should be the head of the production area or his deputy.
The results of comprehensive testing of the pumping station are documented by an act that is approved by the technical manager of the organization operating the heating networks.
technological parameters of network water;
temperature and the presence of lubrication of bearings of pumps and electric motors;
condition of valve fittings;
the operation of the pump cooling system;
the state of measuring instruments, automation, remote control and protection.
At least once a month, the pump station must be checked by the head of the production area and persons responsible for the operation of electrical equipment, heating equipment, measuring instruments, automation and remote control.
inform the dispatcher about the threat;
take steps to identify and eliminate the causes that led to the threat of safe operation;
if it is impossible to eliminate the threat of safe operation, turn off individual pumping units or the pumping station as a whole.
Separate pumping units or pumping station as a whole should be immediately stopped in case of danger to human life, the appearance of unacceptable vibration, ignition of electrical equipment.
Operation of hot water storage tanks
Testing of AGNS should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of SNiP
The filling level limit of a BAGV designed without thermal insulation should be lowered to a height equivalent to that of thermal insulation when applied to insulation.
If a tank for oil products, designed for a product density of 0.9 t / m 3, is used as a POT, the tank filling level should be reduced by 10%.
in the absence of interlocks, ensuring complete cessation of water supply to the tank when it reaches its upper limit level, as well as shutdown of the discharge pumps when it reaches its lower limit level;
if the tanks are not equipped with equipment for monitoring the water level and signaling the limit level, an overflow pipe installed at the maximum permissible filling level, and a main pipe.
The wiring diagram of the alarm should be tested 1 time per shift with an entry in the online log.
The annual inspection and technical diagnostics of BAGV should be guided by the standard instructions for the operation of metal tanks for storing liquid fuel and hot water. Building structures .
In case of corrosive wear of the walls and the bottom of the tank for 20% or more of their design thickness, further operation of the tank, regardless of the nature of wear and the size of the area susceptible to corrosion, is not allowed.
In case of failure of protective equipment, as well as in case of detection of malfunctions in the design of the tanks or its communications, the operation of AGNS is not allowed.
A partial technical examination with an internal inspection of AGSA should be carried out once every 5 years; full technical inspection – once in 15 years, as well as after an accident or major repairs.
Inspection of storage tanks should be carried out in accordance with the requirements of the Methodological Guidelines for Survey of Hot Water Storage Tanks .
On the remote tank level indicator there should be a red line corresponding to the upper limit level.
Operation of condensate collection and return systems
control over the quality and consumption of returned condensate, ensuring its continuous removal to heat sources;
maintenance of modular condensate tanks and pumps, monitoring the operation of drainage devices.
Control of the density and strength of open tanks is carried out by filling them with water.
Operational testing of heat networks
hydraulic testing to check the strength and density of pipelines, their elements and fittings;
tests for the maximum coolant temperature (temperature tests)  to detect defects in pipelines and equipment of the heating network, monitor their condition, check the compensating capacity of the heating network;
heat loss tests to determine the actual heat losses by heat conductors , depending on the type of building insulation structures, service life, condition and operating conditions;
hydraulic loss tests  to obtain the hydraulic characteristics of pipelines;
tests on the potentials of stray currents (electrical measurements to determine the corrosivity of soils and the dangerous effect of stray currents on pipelines of underground heat networks).
All types of tests should be carried out separately. Combination in time of two types of tests is not allowed.
Testing of heat networks for heat and hydraulic losses and for the presence of stray current potentials at the discretion of the organization’s management can involve specialized organizations that have the appropriate licenses.
The test manager should determine in advance the necessary activities that must be performed in the process of preparing the network for testing. These activities include:
insert fittings for pressure gauges and thermometer sleeves;
insert circulating bridges and bypass lines;
selection of measuring instruments (pressure gauges, thermometers, flow meters and
When receiving heat energy from a heat source belonging to another organization, the work program is agreed with the chief engineer of this organization.
Two days before the start of testing, the approved program is transferred to the CEE dispatcher and the head of the heat source to prepare the equipment and establish the required network operation mode.
The test work program should contain the following data:
objectives and the main provisions of the test procedure;
list of preparatory, organizational and technological events;
the sequence of the individual steps and operations during the test;
modes of operation of the equipment of the heat source and heat network (flow rate and parameters of the coolant during each phase of the test);
schemes of operation of the pump and heating installation of the heat source in each test mode;
switching circuits and switching in the heat network;
the timing of each individual phase or test mode;
observation points, the object of observation, the number of observers at each point;
operational means of communication and transport;
safety measures during the test;
list of responsible persons for the implementation of individual events.
check the implementation of all preparatory activities;
organize the inspection of the technical and metrological state of measuring instruments according to the normative-technical documentation;
check off the program provided branches and heat points;
instruct all team members and shift personnel on their duties during each individual test phase, as well as measures to ensure the safety of the test direct participants and those around them.
The maximum value of the test pressure is set in accordance with the specified rules and taking into account the maximum loads that can be taken over by fixed supports.
In each case, the test pressure value is set by the technical manager of the OETS within the permissible limits specified above.
When testing sections of the heating network, in which, according to the terrain profile conditions, network and stationary pressure pumps cannot create a pressure equal to the test pressure, mobile pumping units and hydraulic presses are used.
The heat network is considered to have passed the hydraulic test for strength and density, if, when it was found for 10 minutes under the specified test pressure, the feed value did not exceed the calculated one.
The whole network should be subjected to temperature tests from the heat source to the heat points of the heat consumption systems.
Temperature tests should be carried out at stable daily positive outdoor temperatures.
The maximum temperature should be taken as the maximum temperature of the supply water in accordance with the approved temperature schedule for regulating heat supply at the source.
heating systems of children and medical institutions;
non-automated hot water systems connected in a closed circuit;
hot water systems connected in an open circuit;
heating systems connected through elevators with understated compared with the estimated coefficients of displacement;
heating systems with direct connection scheme;
Shut-off of heat points and heat consumption systems is performed by the first on the side of the heat network valves installed on the supply and return pipelines of heat points, and in the case of leakage of these valves – valves in the chambers on the branches to the heat points. In places where the valves do not provide a shutdown density, it is necessary to install plugs.
Operation of automation devices and measuring instruments in heat networks
Acceptance of automation equipment in operation after installation and commissioning should be made by the acceptance committee, the composition of which is determined by the technical management of the CEET.
It is allowed to turn on automatic regulators on the operating process equipment by personnel who are in charge of the operational automation equipment, as well as representatives of specialized organizations performing their adjustment, under supervision and with the permission of the operating personnel operating the process equipment. From the moment the regulators are turned on, the personnel operating the process equipment is fully responsible for the safety of automation equipment.
Automatic regulators should be activated when the equipment is operating in a stable mode.
Automatic regulators that have not worked before should include two people, one of whom (from the personnel servicing automation devices) performs switching operations, and the other (serving technological equipment) monitors the operation of equipment and regulators.
Before switching on it is necessary to check:
a) remote control action by the regulatory authority. To do this, move the regulatory body into two or four divisions according to the position indicator in different directions. In this case, the regulator should move smoothly, as it is necessary to ascertain by the position indicator and the instrumentation;
b) availability of supply voltage and proper operation of the automatic power reserve for electronic controllers;
C) the presence of pressure of the working environment – 0.2-1.0 MPa (2-10 kgf / cm 2) for hydraulic regulators.
It is necessary to periodically check whether the regulator reacts correctly to the deviations of the controlled parameter and whether its deviations do not go beyond permissible limits.
When the regulator is turned on (off), the connection between the automatic regulators in the process should be taken into account. For example, on booster pumping stations, first protection against an emergency pressure boost is activated, then the device "chopping"further pressure regulators "after myself", "to yourself", "heating system feed".
Automatic controller must be temporarily disabled:
a) if the regulator is in an extreme position for a long time;
b) if deviations of parameters or transition to self-oscillation mode are caused by unstable equipment operation or uncharacteristic large disturbances.
The automatic regulator must be disabled if the mechanical part of the regulator is faulty.
In case of doubts about the correctness of the automatic controller operation, it is necessary to check its operation. For this purpose, the switch is set to the position of the regulator until the adjustable parameter deviates by a permissible value. After that, the switch is transferred to the automatic control position. A normally active controller must return the parameter to the set value.
If it is found that the value of the controlled parameter differs from the set one, it is necessary to change the setting of the regulator with the setting device and make sure that it is correct.
The responsibility of the operating personnel serving the process equipment is to maintain the cleanliness of the external parts of the regulator.
All cases of disconnection of regulators by operating personnel operating the process equipment must inform the CEE dispatcher.
The necessity and sufficiency of the installation of an emergency overpressure protection device should be determined on the basis of hydrodynamic calculation and (or) special tests.
The lead or lag time is determined during the commissioning process and must be recorded in the local instructions.
The operation of the protection devices must be checked before and after the heating period.
The scales of the devices should be marked setting protection.
All cases of protection operation, as well as their failures should be taken into account and analyzed.
Decommissioning of technological protection devices on operating equipment is allowed only in the following cases:
the need to disable protection due to the instruction manual of the main equipment;
obvious equipment malfunction. Disconnection should be carried out by order of the dispatcher with a mandatory notification of the chief engineer of the CEET.
In all other cases, disabling protection should be performed only by order of the chief engineer of the CEET.
Repair and adjustment work in the included protection schemes is prohibited.
technological scheme of the automation object, characteristics and modes of operation of the equipment;
purpose, design and principle of operation of regulators;
rules on and off regulators and their individual elements;
methods and methods for checking, testing and determining malfunctions of regulators and their maintenance;
local instructions drawn up in relation to a specific automation object.
once a day to check the work of regulators with a viewing of the operational log and the log of defects and the analysis of the work of the regulator according to the diagrams of regulating devices;
once a week, check the setting of the automation equipment, the state of the moving parts at a given mode and when artificially caused (with the permission of the CEET Manager) abrupt changes in the parameter to be regulated;
once a month to check the density of the connecting (impulse) lines and blow them;
during the shutdown of the heating network in the summer period, to make a scheduled preventive repair of automation equipment, check the condition of the valve sealing edges, quality of lapping them to the saddles; the state of springs, rods, diaphragms and bellows, regulating, pulse and shut-off valves;
at least once a month to provide for switching automation equipment from one power source to another (recorded in the operational log of the object), in the schemes of which, according to the reliability conditions of their work, two power sources are provided.
upon detection of malfunctions of the regulator or its nodes;
with the disappearance of power on the current regulator.
In these cases, management of the regulator should be transferred from automatic to manual or remote.
An entry should be made in the operational log indicating the time and reason for shutting down the regulator. In this case, measures must be taken to eliminate the problem.
The remote alarm signal should work in the following cases:
de-energizing (loss of power) of the pumping station;
shutting down the main pump and turning on the backup pump unit from the ATS;
heating of bearings or electric motor over admissible limits;
flooding of the premises of the pumping station, associated with the emergency flow of water, the pumping of which is not done by the drainage pump, as well as in the event of the last failure;
triggering of protective or blocking systems;
emergency shutdown without restoration of adjustable parameters beyond the limits of permissible values;
fire alarm triggering.
Repair of automatic regulators and remote control devices must be made during the repair of main equipment.
Operation of protection against electrochemical corrosion
The use of corrosion protection equipment and corrosion measurements must be carried out in accordance with the Model Instructions for the Protection of Heat Networks from External Corrosion  and the Rules and Regulations for the Protection of Heat Networks from Electrochemical Corrosion .
Measurements of the electrical resistivity of soils should be made as necessary to identify sections of the route of thermal networks without channeling in soils with high corrosivity.
Corrosion measurements to determine the hazardous effect of stray currents on steel pipelines of underground heat networks should be carried out in the zones of influence of stray currents once every 6 months, and also after each significant change in the operation mode of electrified power supply systems (change in the operation schedule of electric vehicles, change the location of traction substations, suction points and
In other cases, the measurement should be done once every 2 years.
Installations of an ECP should be constantly kept in a state of full working capacity.
Preventive maintenance of ECP installations should be carried out according to the schedule of technical inspections and scheduled preventive repairs approved by the technical manager of the heating network enterprise, the schedule should contain a list of types and volumes of technical inspections and repair works, their timing, instructions for organizing accounting and reporting on the work performed.
technical inspection of cathode installations – 2 times a month, drainage installations – 4 times a month;
technical inspection with verification of effectiveness – 1 time in 6 months;
current repair – once a year;
overhaul – 1 time in 5 years.
All malfunctions in the operation of the ECP plant must be repaired within 24 hours after their detection.
Water chemistry of heat networks. Chemical control. Network water quality standards
The inclusion and disconnection of any equipment that could cause deterioration of the quality of water and steam must be coordinated with the chemical laboratory.
Internal inspections of equipment, sediment sampling, cutting of pipe samples, approval of inspection reports, as well as investigation of accidents and malfunctions related to the water-chemical regime should be carried out by personnel of the district or section of the heating network with the participation of the personnel of the chemical laboratory.
– timely detection of violations of the modes of operation of water treatment, heat power and heat grid equipment, leading to corrosion, scale formation and deposits;
– determining the quality or composition of water, steam, condensate, sediment, reagents, preservative and washing solutions, oils and wastewater;
– checking gas pollution of industrial premises, tanks, chambers, wells, canals and other objects.
Content of free carbonic acid 0
PH value for heating systems:
Content of iron compounds, mg / kg, not more than
For heating systems:
The content of dissolved oxygen µg / kg, not more than 20
The amount of suspended matter, mg / kg, not more than 5
Oil content, mg / kg, not more than
for heating systems:
At the beginning of the heating period and in the post-repair period, it is allowed to exceed the norms for 4 weeks for closed heating systems and 2 weeks for open systems on the content of iron compounds – up to 1.0 mg / kg, dissolved oxygen – up to 30, and suspended solids up to 15 mg / kg
With open heating systems, in consultation with the sanitary-epidemiological service, it is allowed to deviate from GOST 2874 in terms of color up to 70 ° and iron content up to 1.2 mg / kg for up to 14 days during the period of seasonal inclusions of the operated heating systems, connection of new, and also after their repair.
At the end of the heating period or at shutdown, the heating system must be conserved.
Calcium and total hardness, bicarbonate and total alkalinity, as well as the content of sulphates and iron compounds should be periodically determined to predict the intensity of the formation of deposits in heat networks and consumer heating systems.
At the end of the heating period, an analysis of the deposits in the pipes should be carried out in order to identify and eliminate the causes of their formation and select the appropriate cleaning method.
Operational dispatch management
switching, starting and stopping;
localization of accidents and restoration of the operation mode;
preparation for the production of repair work;
execution of the schedule of restrictions and disconnection of consumers, entered in the prescribed manner.
The dispatcher’s operational control must include equipment, heat pipelines, equipment for emergency control systems and automatic control systems, dispatching and process control facilities, operations with which require coordination of the actions of the subordinate dispatching personnel.
The dispatcher’s operational management should include equipment, heat pipelines, equipment for emergency control systems and automatic control systems, dispatching and process control facilities, the state and mode of which affect the available power and reserve of heat sources and heat networks in general, the mode and reliability of networks, and emergency control setting automatics.
Operations with the specified equipment and devices during operational management should be carried out under the direction of the CEE dispatcher, and during operational management – with his permission.
data on the introduction of new heat sources and network facilities;
data on changes in loads, taking into account applications of consumers;
data on the maximum allowable loads of equipment for heating networks;
data of hydraulic calculation of heat networks.
drawing up seasonal balances of available power of heat sources and associated heat load;
drawing up annual and monthly plans for the repair of heating network equipment, pumping stations and heat points;
development of heat network diagrams for normal and repair modes;
calculations of normal, repair and post-emergency modes, taking into account the introduction of new thermal power and network facilities.
Current planning should include a forecast of the daily heat load of heat sources and consumers and the coolant flow rate in heating networks.
Under normal conditions, heat sources should provide specified heat load graphs and coolant parameters. The dispatching personnel of the heat source should immediately inform the dispatcher of the heating network about the forced deviations from the schedule.
the work of heat sources and consumers;
hydraulic mode of heating networks, including changing the operating modes of pumping stations and heat sinks;
recharge mode by maintaining the constant readiness of water treatment plants of heat sources to cover changing costs of make-up water.
Applications are divided into planned, corresponding to the plan of repair and outages, and urgent for unplanned and urgent repairs. The planned application approved by the technical manager of the organization must be submitted to the dispatcher before 12 hours 2 days before the start of work. Urgent applications can be submitted at any time of the day directly to the dispatcher on duty, who has the right to allow repairs only for a period within his shift. Permission for a longer period must be given by the head of the dispatching service (senior dispatcher) of the organization of heating networks.
No element of the equipment of heat networks, pumping stations and heat points should be removed without the permission of the ADS dispatcher, except in cases that clearly threaten the safety of people and the safety of equipment.
After the equipment has been shut down, an urgent request is made indicating the reasons and the estimated repair period.
The application must be signed by the head of the operational area, site, service.
The dispatcher must notify the performers up to 15 hours on the eve of the day of work to allow the equipment to switch off or on the equipment.
Requests for withdrawal of equipment from work and reserve and switching must be recorded by the dispatcher in the application log.
The operational order of the superior dispatch personnel should be clear and concise. After listening to the order, the subordinate operational-dispatch personnel must literally repeat the text of the order and receive confirmation that the order is understood correctly.
The orders of supervisory dispatch personnel must be carried out immediately and accurately.
The dispatching personnel, having given or having received the order and permission, must write it in the operational log. If there is a tape recording, the volume of entries in the online log is determined by the administrative and technical management of the organization.
In the event that the order of the supervisory dispatch personnel appears to be subordinate to the dispatching personnel erroneous, he must immediately report it to the person who issued the order. Upon confirmation of the order, the dispatch personnel is obliged to comply with it.
The work of the staff of the ADS for two shifts in a row is not allowed.
Departure from duty without change of shift is not allowed.
When accepting a shift, an employee from the operational dispatching staff must:
familiarize yourself with the state, scheme and mode of operation of power plants that are in its operational management and management, and the amount determined by the relevant instructions;
obtain information from the one who passed the shift about the equipment, for which it is necessary to conduct particularly careful observation to prevent violations in the work, and about the equipment that is in reserve and repair;
find out what works are performed on requests, orders and orders on the site assigned to him;
check and accept tools, materials, room keys, operational documentation and documentation of the workplace;
get acquainted with all the records and orders for the time elapsed since his previous duty;
accept the report from the subordinate staff and report to the immediate supervisor for the shift about the entry into duty and the shortcomings identified during the acceptance of the shift;
to issue the acceptance of the shift entry in the journal or statements for his signature and the signature of the one who passes the shift.
The records must indicate the time, position and surname of the persons with whom the negotiations were conducted.
The degree of difficulty of switching and the need to develop a program for their implementation is determined by the technical leader of the organization, depending on the particular working conditions.
For complex switching include:
in thermal circuits with complex connections;
long on time and on objects of the big extent;
Rare switching operations can include:
input of the main equipment after installation and reconstruction;
special tests of equipment and pipelines;
verification and testing of new non-traditional methods of equipment operation.
The list of persons from the administrative and technical staff who have the right to monitor the implementation of the switchings carried out by the programs must be approved by the Technical Manager of the Economic Power Economic Zone. Copies of the list must be kept in the emergency dispatch service and in the workplaces of the operational personnel of districts, areas and services.
a list of preparations for the implementation of switching;
the scheduled start and end time for switching, which can be updated on an operational basis;
if necessary, the switching object schemes (the name and numbering of the object elements in the diagram should fully correspond to the names and numbering adopted on the object);
the order and sequence of operations with indication of the position of the locking and regulatory bodies and elements of the chains of technological protection and automation;
operational dispatch personnel performing switching;
personnel involved in switching;
operational dispatch personnel managing switching operations;
in the case of participation in the switching of two or more divisions of the enterprise – the person of the administrative and technical personnel, carrying out general management;
duties and responsibilities of persons specified in the program;
list of measures to ensure the safety of work;
personnel actions in the event of an emergency or situation endangering the lives of people and the integrity of the equipment.
The program must be approved by the technical manager of the enterprise.
Model programs should be reviewed 1 time in 3 years and adjusted with the introduction, reconstruction or dismantling of equipment, changes in technological schemes, schemes of protection and automation.
Elimination of technological violations
prevention of the development of violations, elimination of injury to personnel and damage to equipment not affected by the technological violation;
rapid restoration of heat supply to consumers and normal parameters of heat supplied to consumers;
creation of the most reliable post-emergency scheme and mode of operation of heat networks in general and their parts;
ascertaining the state of disconnected and disconnected equipment and, if possible, its inclusion in the work and restoration of the scheme of heating networks.
Plans for the elimination of technological violations in the heat networks of cities and large settlements should be coordinated with the local administration.
The emergency dispatching services of the SEE should be agreed documents defining their interaction with other engineering services of cities in the elimination of technological violations.
If necessary, the operational managers or managers of the organization of heating networks have the right to entrust the management of the elimination of the technological violation to another person or to take over the management by making an entry in the operational journal. The replacement shall be notified of both the superior and subordinate operational personnel.
In operational terms, AVB should be subordinate to the dispatcher of the organization or the operational area, in the administrative area – to the chief engineer of the organization or the head of the area.
AVB duty is organized around the clock, in shifts.
The calculation should be accompanied by a schedule of the order of disconnections and fillings of the sections of the heating network and heating systems under the developed emergency conditions.
7. REPAIR OF HEATING NETWORKS AND HEAT UNITS
Repair of heat networks and heat points is divided into:
maintenance, which includes work on the systematic and timely protection of individual elements of equipment and structures of the heating network from premature wear by taking preventive measures and eliminating minor faults and damage;
overhaul, in the process of which worn-out equipment and structures are restored or they are replaced by new ones with higher technological characteristics, which improve the operational performance of the network.
For all types of repair of basic equipment, pipelines, buildings and structures, prospective and annual schedules should be drawn up. Annual and monthly repair schedules are approved for auxiliary equipment, approved by the technical manager of the enterprise.
Schedules of capital and current repairs are developed based on the results of the analysis of identified defects, damages, periodic inspections, tests, diagnostics and annual pressure testing.
the quality of the repaired equipment;
the quality of repairs;
fire safety level.
Quality ratings are set by:
preliminary – at the end of acceptance tests;
finally – based on the results of monthly controlled operation, during which the check of equipment operation in all modes should be completed, tests and adjustment of all systems were carried out.
If any disturbances in the normal operation of the individual components of the equipment occur during the acceptance tests, which do not require immediate shutdown; the question of the continuation of acceptance tests should be decided depending on the nature of the violations by the technical manager of the enterprise in consultation with the repair contractor, who eliminates the detected defects within the prescribed period.
If the acceptance tests of equipment under load were interrupted to eliminate defects, then the end time of repair is considered to be the last time in the process of testing the equipment for loading.
Information on the repair work that necessitates an extraordinary survey of the pipeline, materials used in the repair, as well as information on the quality of welding should be entered in the pipeline passport.
The input control should be organized arriving at the warehouse and accounting of all available in the organization of spare parts, spare equipment and materials; their condition and storage condition should be periodically checked.