Public lesson: "Hygiene of the human cardiovascular system." Type of lesson: the study of new material with elements of project activities.
Theme of the lesson: “Hygiene of the cardiovascular system.”
Type of lesson – a lesson in the study of new material with elements of project activities.
- get acquainted with the main diseases of the cardiovascular system
- examine the causes and risk factors of these diseases
- study the prevention of these diseases
- learn to assess the state of the cardiovascular system of your body. Developing:
- develop the ability to independently acquire and apply knowledge
- describe research results
- analyze, compare, draw conclusions
- develop a cognitive interest in the subject of Educational:
- to promote a healthy lifestyle, to form a value attitude to their own health, the development of communicative abilities of students
- promote the formation of a responsible attitude to their health as opposed to smoking and alcohol dependence;
- to form an understanding of what health is an invaluable gift Equipment:
projector, disks, presentation, interactive board
I. Organizational moment
greeting, lesson readiness
Among the many causes of premature death of the inhabitants of our planet, diseases of the cardiovascular system are the main cause. Today is the problem of all mankind.
About 17 million people die from heart disease each year, representing approximately 29% of all deaths.
In today’s lesson we will get acquainted with the main diseases of the cardiovascular system, we will study the causes and risk factors, as well as the prevention of these diseases.
Just think about it! (student’s story with presentation)
- in 1 minute it pumps about 6 liters of blood.
- With an average life expectancy of 70 years, our heart pumps a huge amount of blood, which would require a composition of 4 million railway tanks to be transported. And this work is done by the body, the mass of which is 300 grams.
- With one stroke, work is done, with the help of which you can lift a load of 200 g to a height of 1 m. For 1 minute, the heart would raise this load by 70 m, i.e. to a height of a 20-story house
- A day, the heart makes 100 thousand blows, for the year – almost 40 million blows, and for 70 years 25 billion.
- If it were possible to use the work of the heart, then in 8 hours it would have been possible to raise a person to the height of the building of Moscow University (240 m), and in a month to the top of Chomolungma – the highest point of the globe (8848 m)!
“How to keep heart and blood vessels healthy with such active work and vulnerability of cardiovascular system?”
What diseases of the cardiovascular system are the most common? (conversation)
“Atherosclerosis. Why is atherosclerosis called # 1 killer? ”
Students are given information sheets on which the description of the disease is presented.
- It is a pathological vessel that is chronic.
- This disease is accompanied by the formation of atherosclerotic plaques directly in the walls of blood vessels,
- plaques tend not only to constrict, but also to deform the vessels themselves.
- Scientists have found that the simplest deposits of lipids (cholesterol) in the walls of blood vessels are found without exception in children under the age of 10 years, and in the coronary arteries (arteries of the heart itself) at the age of 15-20 years.
- The constriction and deformation of the vessels in turn, becomes the cause of impaired blood circulation, and, consequently, damage to the internal organs.
- With age, the number of such plaques increases. Calcium salts are deposited in them, they lead to a narrowing of the lumen of the vessels, reduce their elasticity. This implies a practically important conclusion: preventive measures should not begin at 35-40 years of age, but at a child’s age.
After reading and studying the text, answer the following questions:
Reporting assignments of the 1st group of students
Presentation of students: “Targets of atherosclerosis”
a) ischemic disease
The basis of coronary heart disease (CHD) is the deposition of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of the coronary arteries, which, like “scum on the teapot”, narrow the vessel lumen. Plaques reduce the lumen of the arteries and lead to insufficient nutrition of the heart muscle, which can lead to myocardial infarction.
This is a pathological condition of the heart caused by insufficient blood supply to it due to a lesion of the coronary arteries of the heart (vessels that feed the muscles). About 10% of all blood passes through the coronary arteries, this provides nourishment for the heart muscle.
b) myocardial infarction
this is the death of the heart muscle, caused by an acute violation of blood circulation in this area. Occurs in patients with coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension
Angina is popularly called “angina pectoris” due to painful attacks (constricting and pressing) in the central or left side of the chest. Often the pain spreads to the left hand. Attacks usually last a few minutes and are accompanied by weakness, a sense of fear. The cause of angina pectoris is narrowing of the coronary arteries and weakening of the blood supply to certain parts of the heart. If the blood does not flow for a long time, the tissue necrosis of this area can occur (heart attack).
a) hypertension – increase in blood pressure. Norm -120×80 mm Hg Art. more than normal – hypertension
b) Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries occurs after the disease affects other arteries. Occlusion, occurs as a consequence of the appearance of an atherosclerotic plaque in the arteries. The result of this pathology is the reduction and deterioration of blood flow through the artery. The result of this phenomenon may be arterial thrombosis and cerebral stroke.
c) stroke – a violation of cerebral circulation.
acutely developing violation of cerebral circulation, accompanied by damage to brain tissue and a disorder of its functions. The most common causes are hypertension and atherosclerosis, or a combination thereof;
What are the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases?
Reporting task 2 groups (“Athletes”). Presentation “Hypodynamia”
1. Hypodynamia is a lack of physical activity. As a result, not only the muscles of the heart and body weaken, but other disorders also occur.
in case of insufficient motor load, the bones become thinner, and the calcium contained in them enters the blood. It settles on the walls of blood vessels, which leads to atherosclerosis, and the vessels become brittle, lose elasticity and are easily damaged. The wall that has lost its elasticity cannot expand if necessary, and the maintenance of normal arterial blood pressure in the vessels becomes difficult, hypertension occurs.
The heart muscle is not made up of a single muscle tissue, it has connective tissue, thanks to which the heart is able to stretch and in the state of physical tension contain much more blood than at rest. During training, the muscular tissue of the heart is strengthened, the core increases in size, and the number of contractile threads increases in its muscle fibers. It makes the heart stronger.
When hypodynamic muscle tissue from idleness atrophy, and connective grows. Fat may be deposited in it, as a result of which the heart sometimes increases significantly in size. But this does not make it stronger, because the connective tissue cannot shrink.
Hypodynamia is also called the disease of the century and the flip side of progress. The validity of this statement, unfortunately, is obvious. Progress gives a person a lot of the most advanced devices that can save us from any physical exertion. Our muscles lose the necessary training, weaken and gradually atrophy. The weakness of muscle tissue affects the work of all organs and systems of the human body.
The heart of a trained and untrained person.
During exercise, the body’s metabolism increases, oxygen and nutrient consumption increases, and more decomposition products are released. Therefore, the work of the heart increases. Increased cardiac activity can occur either by increasing the heart rate or by releasing more blood during each contraction.
The amount of blood emitted by the heart in 1 cycle is called the stroke volume of the heart.
The stroke volume of an untrained person’s heart is small, since the heart muscle is weak and cannot push out large amounts of blood. Therefore, an increase in blood circulation occurs mainly due to an increase in the heart rate. But at the same time, the time paused of the heart is reduced, and the heart does not rest much and gets tired quickly.
Reporting task 3 groups. (“Physiologists”). Presentation.
The research results: “The reaction of the cardiovascular system to the dosed load”
Equipment: stopwatch or watch with a second hand.
To get acquainted with functional tests that allow you to find out the degree of fitness of your heart. To do this, measure the heart rate (HR) at rest and after the metered load. On a large statistical material, it was found that in healthy adolescents (after 20 squats) the heart rate increases by 1/3 compared to the resting state and normalizes after 2-3 min after work. Knowing these data, you can check the status of your cardiovascular system. Working process:
Analysis of the results of performing a functional cardiovascular test.
The experiment involved 10 people from the class, who are systematically and not systematically involved in sports.
On a large statistical material, it was found that in healthy adolescents (after 20 squats) the heart rate increases by 1/3 compared to the resting state and normalizes after 2-3 min after work. Knowing these data, you can check the status of your cardiovascular system.